Author: Sri Kanth

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Did you know these things about the naming of months

The names of the months in English (as well as in many other languages) are originated by Latin words. Many of the months are dedicated to gods, but some have other meanings. 

January

Januarius – this month was dedicated to Janus, the Roman god of doors.

Janus had two faces, one looking back at the old year and the other looking forward to the new year.

February

Februarius – Februa was the Roman purification festival, which took place at this time of year.

March

Martius – from Mars, the Roman god of war.

April

Aprilis – from aperire, Latin for open, because plants begin to open during this month.

May

Maius – probably comes from Maia, the Roman goddess of growth and increase.

June

Junius – either from a Roman family name Junius, which means young, or perhaps after the goddess Juno.

July

Julius- after Julius Caesar. This month was named in Caesar’s honour by Mark Antony in 44 BC. Previously this month was called Quintilis from the word quintus, five, as it was the fifth month in the Roman calendar.

August

Augustus – named in 8 BC in honour of Emperor Augustus.

September

September – from septem, seven, because it was the seventh month in the Roman calendar.

October

October – from octo, eight (as in octopus, which has eight legs), the eighth month in the Roman calendar.

November

November – trom novem, nine, the ninth month in the Roman calendar.

December

December – from decem, ten, the tenth month in the Roman calendar.

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How to create your own website using wordpress

Website development was for the experts earlier

A few years back, creating a web site was something done by the experts. To create a website such as a news web required expert designers who know how to design pages and good developers who know code such as the simple HTML/CSS and programming languages such as PHP or JAVA.

Today it's made easy by the CMS systems

But today the scenario is deferent because of ready-made content management systems such as WordPress, Joomla, and many more. Today even the expert developers use these content management systems to create websites because they are easy and fast to develop. Someone with good HTML/CSS/PHP knowledge can entirely adopt a CMS website to their needs with ease. Rather than building from scratch, by using such systems the development process is very quick. For example, a fully functional news website can be built in a day or two using a CMS.

Best CMS for beginners is the WordPress

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WordPress Logo


At the present the most popular CMS system is WordPress. Even people without any coding knowledge can develop websites using WordPress templates and plugins. you just need to have an idea about what functions your web site needs. People have developed blog sites such as news and magazines, and even e-commerce online sales web sites using WordPress, without having coding knowledge. So having some coding knowledge is a huge advantage, but even without coding knowledge, you can build your website yourself through WordPress. Although there are other services such as Wix to create websites, WordPress is more popular because it’s open source. WordPress is not simple as drag and drop, but through this, you can create a website free of charge for your needs. So today we are going to tell you how to install a WordPress website in your server.

How to install WordPress

  • First, you have to purchase a hosting account and a domain name through a provider such as Namecheap or Godaddy.
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Softaculous
  • In the hosting service, you get a control panel to log in to. In this control panel, you get a link as Softaculous. Click on it. You’ll get the bellow screen
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WordPress option
  • Select WordPress from the menu. You’ll get the bellow screen.
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  • Click Install Now to begin the installation. This will take you to a settings screen as bellow. 
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installation settings-select folder. Leave it blank , so the site will install to the root folder.
  • In this screen, you can set the site’s installation folder. Recommended to leave it blank so you can install the site directly to the root folder of the domain. By scrolling downwards on the same screen you will find the settings to set site name and description. On the same screen, you will find the settings for the administrator username and password. Set all these settings as suited. Please remember the username and password to log in to the admin console later.
  • Don’t fill in the advanced settings until you get some knowledge of WordPress, so do not expand the advanced settings tab.
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Username and password settings , Site name and description settings

Scroll down for the installation button as in the bellow image. Press install to finalize the settings and begin installing.

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Press install button to begin installation
  • Afterward, you’ll get the installation progress screen as bellow.
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Installation progress

When the installation is finished you’ll get the bellow screen, which contains the links for site administration console and the viewing of the web site.

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Installation finished

Congratulations now you have installed WordPress CMS in your server. You can log in to the control panel now to customize this web site. In the next article, we will see how to select and install a suitable theme and plugins to this web site. As the first project, let’s learn how to create a magazine web site using WordPress in future articles.

Till then you can log in to the admin console and go to themes tab to browse various themes available. Same way get into the plugins tab to browse various available plugins.

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Web site home page
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Admin consol (Control panel) log in screen
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Control Panel
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“Closest to Earth” black hole discovered

Scientists have discovered the black hole closest to the earth. Well, of course, this is the closest one until a more closer one is discovered. The team of astronomers who made the discovery is from Europe.

European Southern Observatory astronomer Thomas Rivinius who led the research. Dietrich Baade co-authored the research. The study is to be published in the journal Astronomy & Astrophysics.

This black hole is about 1000 light-years from earth. The previously known closest one is about 3 times distant than this (3200 light-years) in constellation Monoceros. The location of the newly discovered black hole is constellation Telescopium in the Southern Hemisphere. The researchers claim that there may be more of them out there, according to clues they got.

This black hole is part of a three-star system called HR6819. Anomalies in the orbit of one star in this system led the researchers to the discovery. The orbit of the innermost star is warped they say. The other two stars are far enough to avoid the effects of the black hole. When they look through the telescope, They discovered that something as 5 times the mass of our sun is pulling the star towards it. So they decided that it could only be work of a black hole. They say that its size is about 25 miles in diameter.

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Tom Cruise is going to shoot a movie in space

Tom Cruise is going to fly into space to shoot a movie. NASA confirms it. The head of NASA confirmed that the agency is working with the actor to shoot a movie in the International Space Station, which orbits 250 miles above the earth.

Various crews of astronauts lived in space Station since 2000. Those who can spend billions on paid tours also have the chance of visiting the station, and few such tourists have already visited the station.

Few movies have already been shot in the International Space Station. This includes the 2002 IMAX documentary which was narrated by Tom Cruise himself, and the 2012s “Apogee of Fear” science fiction which was filmed by a space tourist named Richard Garriott.

However, Tom Cruise will be the first actor to travel the ISS to shoot a movie. He’s already famous among movie fans for doing dangerous stunts himself without a stunt double. And now he’s going to endure space travel for a movie.

tom cruise in Mission Impossible 2 Tom Cruise in a scene from Mission Impossible movies

This will be the first action-adventure movie shooting in outer space. However, it’s not clarified how Tom will get into outer space and which additional crew will join him for the movie. He may use the Space X program capsules to travel there since the company is to start manned missions to ISS.

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What’s the oldest record of someone getting killed by a meteorite?

A team of scientists thinks they’ve found the earliest evidence of a man killed by a meteorite. The report is published in the Journal of Meteoritics and Planetary Science.

Earth being hit by rocks is a usual thing, but there are very few records of people being hit by meteorites. Someone being killed is even rarer. Scientists at Ego University and Trakya University in Turkey and the SETI Institute in the United States found an 1888 record from the General Directorate of state archives of Turkey. This contained three manuscripts that seem to recount a death by a meteorite event.

  • One manuscript is dated September 13, 1988. This has details about a fireball occurring in an evening a month before. The exact location of the village mentioned can not be determined they say. According to the description, smoke and fire accompanied the flash, and meteorites rained from the sky for about 10 minutes. One man died and another was injured and paralyzed as a result.
  • Another manuscript contains a request forwarded to sultan Abdul Hamid II asking what to do about the event.
  • There’s also a third manuscript describing events, and mentioning a man named Ahmed Munir Pasha sent a letter with a piece of those stones to the Grand Vizier.

according to the translations in the new paper, titled “Earliest evidence of death and injury by a meteorite”, on August 22, 1888, a meteor exploded over a village in Turkey killing one man and paralyzing another man. A local legislator reported the event on September 13 same year. The central government was aware of this on October 9.

Scientists say that the translation of these documents was very hard since Ottoman Turkish is difficult to read. They also accept that they don’t have physical evidence to support this. But this still can be accepted as the earliest record of someone getting killed by a meteorite.

Deaths and injuries caused by meteorites are extremely rare, but there are few recorded incidents that happened recently.

  • A bus driver in India named V. Kamaraj died in an apparent meteorite strike in Natrampalli back in 2016. But scientific experts and NASA denied the claim.
  • The National Resource Council estimates that 91 people should die in meteorite-related accidents every year, but there aren’t records of these deaths.
  • In 2013, over 1600 people were injured when a meteor fell over Chelyabinsk in Russia.
  • A famous incident is of Ann Hewlett Hodges who was hit and slightly injured by a meteorite, in Alabama 1954.
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US doctors paste their smiling faces over PPE

Coronavirus has made the health workers brave heroes on the frontline. These health workers include Doctors, Nurses, and other staff. They wear personal protective equipment for their own safety against the virus. So while in action (on duty), no one gets to see their faces or facial expressions. When it comes to patients being treated, they also don’t get to see the faces of those who are treating them. This may affect the mentality of patients. All they see is some masked human covering all the body interacting with them.

US doctors are now wearing their smiling photographs above their personal protective gowns. A respiratory therapist named Robertino (Instagram tag captain_wolf82) initiated this. He thought that masks don’t make people look friendly or even human in some cases. So he came up with a genius idea to overcome this and take his smile to the patients. So Robertino printed a nice picture of himself with a nice smile, laminated it, and stuck it on his PPE.

Image credits: captain_wolf82

Now many other doctors in the US and around the world are inspired by his move and do the same. Robertino shared a photo that he received from a fellow respiratory nurse called Derek. This photo indicates that Derek and two other colleagues doing the same.

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In an Instagram post, Derek explained that he saw Robertino’s post and it inspired him. He says that when he saw this idea online, he felt that this is a great idea to bring ease to his patients during this stressful time. In this post, he also thanked all health workers in frontlines and those who stay at home.

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Isolation advise by Jewish astronaut Jessica Meir

Jessica Meir is a Jewish astronaut who’s in the International Space Station. On Thursday she advised the Israelis and all other people on how to stay mentally and physically fit, while stuck indoors.

“It is very strange and a bit surreal for us to see it all unfold when we’ve been up here for the entire duration of what’s going on down on the ground and it seems that we will be completely going back to a different planet,” she said in the video posted by the Jerusalem embassy.

“It’s something we think a lot about up here. She said answering a question posed by the embassy. The question was — “How can we stay engaged and healthy indoors?” —

“And I think there are a lot of things that people can do to make things a little bit easier on them. And some of the things that we do up here is we make sure to stick to our routine. We stick to our exercise routine to stay fit and healthy,” she said. “Exercise is something, as we know, that’s important not only for our physical fitness but also for our mental well-being, and that’s something that we emphasize a lot up here.”

She also said that regular contacts with family and friends as well as the other loved ones are very important. People can connect via video conferencing. She says that’s one thing regularly done on Space Station as well to the psychological support of astronauts to improve their mentality.

Meir frequently posts photos of Earth taken from the International Space Station, where she has been since late September. In November, she posted a photo of Israel, in a tribute to her father.

Last October, Meir participated in the first female-only spacewalk. Since the first spacewalk in 1965, there have been 227 spacewalkers. Only 14 of them were women. Meir is on the 15th.

Read More: All women space walk

Source: NASA

New shot of Proxima Centauri, our nearest neighbour

New planet discovered in Proxima Centauri

4 years ago scientists discovered a planet orbiting our closest neighboring star, the Proxima Centauri. Now scientists think that they have discovered a second planet in the same system.

The newly discovered planet has at least Six times more mass than Earth. It takes 5.2 years to orbit around its star. The discovery is published in the open-access journal Science Advances.

The first planet called Proxima Centauri b has a mass similar to the Earth. Its orbit is 11.2 days. First, they expected that this planet may be a habitable planet that contains water. But further studies revealed that its mother star has robbed its atmosphere long ago.

To discover these planets scientists studied wobbles in the Proxima Centauri’s spectrum. To get the spectrum they used the HARPS spectrograph at the La Silla Observatory and the UVES spectrograph on the Very Large Telescope. They analyzed data between 2000 and 2017 to discover the first planet in 2016 as well as the new planet now.

Proxima c is about 1.5 astronomical units from its star. This is about 30 (times) than Proxima b’s distance from its mother star. Due to this large distance, the planet would be very cold to host life. (unlike our sun, the Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf which is very faint)

 

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Necro planetology

5 yrs back, scientists discovered a white dwarf star 570 light-years away from Earth. They noticed that the star was dimming at an irregular rate. Closer inspection revealed that the star is devouring the planets in its solar system through a process called tidal disruption.

The discovery was the beginning of a brand new scientific field called the Necro planetology. This term is like placing the word “dead” in front of planetary studies.

A team of researchers from Wesleyan University in Connecticut, the University of Colorado, Boulder, and Warwick University in the U.K. first published the findings on the pre-print website arXiv in 2015. Now this research has been accepted by the Astrophysical Journal for review. They say that this discovery may help in understanding how planets in different systems are gobbled up by parent stars.

Before going into a supernova or turning into a black dwarf, dying stars become white dwarves. In about 6 billion years that would be the fate of our sun also. The atmospheres of these stars usually contain lighter elements such as helium and hydrogen.

Scientists did the research on several clues. One of these clues was that the dimming occurred repeatedly, every 4.5 to 5 hours. The second clue was, that the star’s atmosphere was littered with elements typically found in the cores of rocky exoplanets—heavy elements like iron, oxygen, and magnesium.

To study how these planets met their doom, the researchers created a series of computer simulations. This simulation mapped how 36 different types of planets endured these conditions. For each of these 36 planets in the simulation, they set the orbital period to about 4.5 hours. They ran the simulation 100 times.

According to the results of the simulation, rocky bodies with a tiny core and low-density mantle were the most likely to produce the observations they saw before. These high-density planets are similar to rocky asteroids like Vesta. These are tough enough to endure the bulk of the disruption. But these disintegrate within a short period of time.

WD 1145+017 is not the only star with such a huge appetite. Astronomers observed 21 stars with similar behavior.

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“ozone hole” is healing

The ozone layer above Antarctica is healing. It has healed so much stopping many changes in Southern Hemisphere’s atmosphere. The whole world gets credit.

Studies suggest that the Montreal Protocol of 1987, the agreement to stop producing ozone-depleting substances could be the key player in achieving this result. This has stopped some troubling changes in air currents around the Southern Hemisphere.

Ozone depletion drove the Southern jet streams further south than usual (Jet streams are fast air currents). This resulted in changes in rainfall and ocean currents.

After about a decade of signing the protocol, the migration suddenly stopped. Using computer simulations and models, researchers found that this pause in the movement was not driven by natural shifts in winds along. This could be explained only through changes in the Ozone layer.

So the impact from the Montreal Protocol seems to have paused or slightly reversed the Southern migration of the Jetstream. For counties like Australia, changes in Jetstream have resulted in an increase in the risk of drought by pushing the rain away from coastal areas. After the effects generated by the healing of the Ozone layer, these rains may return.

“The ‘weather bands’ that bring our cold fronts have been narrowing towards the south pole, and that’s why southern Australia has experienced decreasing rainfall over the last thirty years or so,” says Ian Rae, an organic chemist from the University of Melbourne who was not involved in the study. “If the ozone layer is recovering, and the circulation is moving north, that’s good news on two fronts (pun not intended).”

Still, this may not be a situation to celebrate long. Although the usage of other harmful gases is limited, rising levels of co2 can again bring bad results and industrial regions in China still emit Ozone-depleting gases.

“We term this a ‘pause’ because the poleward circulation trends might resume, stay flat, or reverse,” says atmospheric chemist Antara Banerjee from the University of Colorado Boulder.
“It’s the tug of war between the opposing effects of ozone recovery and rising greenhouse gases that will determine future trends.”

The Montreal Protocol is proof that if we take immediate action environmental damages can be healed.

Source: Nature

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NASA Moon mission is disrupted by COVID-19

Due to the rising no of coronavirus incidents, Nasa decided to suspend its work related to building and testing the rocket and capsule for the Artemis. Artemis is a crewed mission to the moon.

NASA is shutting down its Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans. The space launch system rocket is being built there. They also plan to shut down Stennis Space Center. (As per administrator Jim Bridenstine).

“The change at Stennis was made due to the rising number of COVID-19 cases in the community around the center, the number of self-isolation cases within our workforce there, and one confirmed case among our Stennis team,” he said.

NASA is to temporarily suspend the production and testing of space launch systems and Orion hardware. NASA and contract teams will orderly shut down the hardware to put them in a safe mode, so the work can resume once the problem is settled.

The space launch system is a powerful space rocket to transport astronauts to Moon and beyond. Orion is its crew model.

“We realize there will be impacts on NASA missions, but as our teams work to analyze the full picture and reduce risks we understand that our top priority is the health and safety of the NASA workforce,” Bridenstine said.

A crewed return to Moon is the first part of Artemis. The purpose is to test technologies to colonize Mars in 2030.

Source: sciencealert.com

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Did Covid-19 come from space?

Did the Coronavirus come from space? According to an article on space.com, different scientist have different ideas.

Dr.Chandra Wickramasinghe, who is well known for the work in astronomy and astrobiology, has the idea that the virus lived on a comet. A piece of that space rock may have fallen to China during a meteor shower in October 2019. He says that such incidents may have occurred in the past also, causing similar outbreaks.

Previously Dr.Wickramasinghe theorized that SARS also came from outer space. He co-wrote a book with Fred Hoyle in the past at 1970 called “Diseases from Space”. He has tried to prove his theories that viruses did come from outer space.

Some scientist, however, does not agree with the theory. They do not accept Wickramasinghe’s suggestions that some illnesses may have come from outer space. They say that his ideas are pseudoscience or “bad science”.

Dr.Graham Lau who hosts “Ask an Astrobiologist,” says that it’s very difficult to believe that viruses can survive the radiation in space and the journey to earth through the atmosphere. After surviving such a hard journey, the virus then has to find a way to infect living beings. while it would be an incredibly unique and groundbreaking finding if this were true, Wickramasinghe simply does not have evidence to support his claims, Lau said.

In an interview with space.com, Lau says “Even though it’s an interesting idea, we just don’t have any reason to embrace that idea right now”.

“I think it’s important for scientists to point out pseudoscientists or bad science,” Lau added. “If this was real, it’d be great, but we just can’t allow ourselves to jump to the feel-good conclusion without doing our due diligence as scientists.”

Dr.Lau says that if this virus had some different biomolecules from known life, then there might be a reason to investigate if the virus originated in space. He says even in that case, there may be earthly explanations.

Wickramasingha’s theory is related to the theory of panspermia which is an unproven theory which says that life on Earth originated from microorganisms and biological material from space. Lau says panspermia is theoretically acceptable although there’s no concrete evidence.

Theoretically, biological materials can survive on space rocks by lying dormant. If shielded from radiation in space, they may survive the process of impacting Earth.

However, as a conclusion, Lau says there’s no credible evidence that coronavirus came from outer space.

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Social media to run on AI due to Coronavirus

Social media giants such as Facebook, Youtube and Twitter are relying on Artificial Intelligence, due to the coronavirus. In the current situation, most employes can not attend to work. So most tasks that required employes, such as content moderation is due to continue on artificial intelligence.

The networks admit that there will be some mistakes in contrast to manual content moderation, but they say that they still need to remove harmful content. Especially when considering the current situation on coronavirus, lots of false medical information spread across social media.

Google, which owns youtube says that appeals could take longer than usual to respond due to new measures.
“This means automated systems will start removing some content without human review, As we do this, users and creators may see increased video removals, including some videos that may not violate policies. Our workforce precautions will also result in delayed appeal reviews.” Says Youtube.

However, Twitter announced that no accounts suspended by the automated system will be permanently banned without human review.
“sometimes lack the context that our teams bring, and this may result in us making mistakes”. Says Twitter. So no accounts will be banned without human intervention.

Social media networks have content review employees all around the world. Now, most countries have said that employes should work from home. But it seems, evolving content review operation to remote working is a complicated thing.

Facebook has sent all their content reviewers home until further notice. They will be paid as usual.

“With fewer people available for human review we’ll continue to prioritise imminent harm and increase our reliance on proactive detections in other areas,” said Facebook on a blogpost.
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How to save International Space Station from Corona-virus

Next space mission to the International Space Station is planned on 9th April and it’s getting closer. As at today, NASA has no intentions to postpone the mission. International Space Station is like a quarantine itself, isolated from Earth. Getting infected with coronavirus in a closed space with no hospitals for thousands of miles may be the worst situation to encounter on a space mission. What are the measures that NASA’s going to take against such a catastrophe?

Anyway, NASA has been careful about germs even before Coronavirus. Even in the past on Apollo 14 launch 1972, crew members had to spend 14 days in a health stabilization quarantine before launch. Under present circumstances, NASA will be testing the crew for COVID-19 before the quarantine.

The launch site is in Kazakhstan which has closed its borders due to coronavirus cases. One of the crew members is also from Kazakhstan. NASA team will enter the country under special permission. No reporters are allowed to cover it during the launch event. The event is Going to be held with only the participation of essential personnel. So the Russian space agency is going to live stream the event, which is not a usual thing for them. But NASA usually streams these events live.

In mid-April, some ISS members are to return to Earth. They are probably virus free. The capsule carrying them will land on the Kazak desert. These type of landing require a large no of recovery personnel. NASA has not announced plans on how to make this personal virus-free but probably have a plan.

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Prepare hand sanitizers at home

Due to the viral outbreak of coronavirus, health officials advise to use hand sanitizers frequently. But it may be difficult for you to find hand sanitizers in stores due to the higher demand. And also hand sanitizers may not be affordable for many people due to their expensive prices.

Anyway, if you can find below-mentioned chemicals, you can prepare yourself hand sanitizers by spending a very little amount of money and effort.

Method 1

Surgical Spirit 70ml
Glycerin 20ml
Hydrogen Peroxide 10ml
Citronella Oil 5-10 drops

Stir well and you have 100ml of hand sanitizers at hand!

Method 2

Lab grade Isopropyl Alcohol 2/3
Aloe Vera gel 1/3
5-10 drops of Citronella oil

Stir well and You have your hand sanitizer at hand!

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139 “minor planets” discovered beyond Neptune

A team of astronomers at the University of Pennsylvania discovered 139 minor planets beyond Neptune, in our Solar System. These objects orbit the Sun. These are too small to be nominated as formal planets. But these can not be classified as rocks or space rocks either. The study is to be published in the Astrophysical Journal.

The most famous object beyond Neptune is Pluto. The objects beyond Neptune is called “trans-Neptunian Objects”. These discovered objects are in the Kuiper belt, which is a region in our Solar System that stretches beyond our system’s eight main planets. Kuiper belt extends about 50 astronomical units, that’s 50 times the distance between earth and sun. This is larger than the asteroid belt.

These discovered objects could be a great support in finding planet 9, the hypothetical 9th planet of the solar system. This is because scientists study the gravitational effect of planet 9 on the objects on the Kuiper belt and beyond Neptune.

“There are lots of ideas about giant planets that used to be in the solar system and aren’t there anymore, or planets that are far away and massive but too faint for us to have noticed yet,” co-lead and UPenn professor Gary Bernstein said in a statement.

the Dark Energy Survey (DES) is an international collaborative effort to map galaxies. Launched in 2013, the team used its data to the discovery. The project has now collected six years of data. DES was not intended for research of Trans Neptune Objects. So the researchers had to improvise.

“Dedicated TNO surveys have a way of seeing the object move, and it’s easy to track them down,” lead author and graduate student Pedro Bernardinelli said in the statement. “One of the key things we did in this paper was to figure out a way to recover those movements.”

The team first found 7 billion possible objects detected by the system. They then cut down 22 million transient objects, which appear only for a limited time. They then observed the skies for 6 nights to reduce the possible objects for a no of 400. Through stacking images they discovered 316 objects. 245 already known, and 139 new ones.

The team wish to research further to find more objects, using other such available systems like the Vera C. Rubin ObserObservatory which is under construction in Chile. This observatory is capable of providing even more data than the DES.

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Amazon Web Services on green energy

Amazon is launching 4 new projects of renewable energy around the world to power its data centres with green energy. This is to power the Amazon Web services platform.

The projects will be located in Australia, Sweden, Spain and the US state of Virginia. Combined together, these projects are expected to produce an additional 840000 MWh energy annually. This value is equivalent to the consumption of 76000 US homes.

However, the energy generated will fulfil the energy demand of servers, network and storage equipment of AWS infrastructure.

Three of these projects in Australia, Spain and Virginia will be related to solar energy. The remaining project in Sweden is an onshore wind project. Each project will launch separately throughout the year 2021 and 2022.

The details were revealed by Amazon itself as evidence that the organization is working to meet its commitment to reach 80% renewable energy by 2024. Their target is to make it 100% by 2030.

Amazon also revealed plans to build a solar farm in Pittsylvania County to power its new headquarters known as HQ2. This will be done within the next 2 years. HQ2 is on track to become a four million-square-foot campus that will be powered by 100% renewable energy.